But the problem of uniting, under one government and under one leadership, a continent that lacks the racial, cultural and linguistic homogeneity of the US, the age-old cultural and political unity of China and (to a large extent) of India, and Russia’s ideological cohesion should not be underestimated. The distinguishing factors we have just mentioned are complicated by the fact that Africa has peculiar internal tensions and tensions, divisions and conflicts inherent in its political, economic and cultural evolution.
Nevertheless, the economic unity of Africa is an achievable goal and must be pursued tirelessly. This is the greatest obligation Nigeria owes to Africa: to work for the rapid establishment of its unity and thereby hasten the attainment of economic freedom and material prosperity for all the peoples of the continent. In this regard, the recent emergence of regional economic groupings such as the East African Common Market, the West African Common Market, etc. is a healthy and commendable evolution. It must be encouraged. But these groups should be regarded as no more and no less than steps in the right direction. For starters, they are incapable of size and potential to meet the challenge of the gigantic economic groupings now taking place in Europe and America. On the other hand, there is a danger that these regional African groups will enter into destructive competition with each other unless their activities are coordinated and channeled at an Africa-wide level.
It is recognized that international organizations such as the ECA have done tremendous work in studying Africa’s economic and social problems and formulating solutions to them.
It is also recognized that African states have actively participated in the work of these international organizations and have derived some benefits from their activities. But it must be admitted that these international organizations are far from adequate; nor are they compatible with the intense desire of African states for economic self-determination and independence.
Africa’s attitude to these international organizations should be to view them not as the Alpha and Omega of its economic rescue, but as pioneers for its own permanent, inclusive economic community.
We have deliberately emphasized the economics of the OAU’s policy statement because we view economic freedom and prosperity as the end point of Africa’s rescue. So long as Africa or most of its states remain underdeveloped and economically subservient, so long will poverty, ignorance and disease persist on the continent, along with their concomitants of colonialism, neo-colonialism, lan-Smitism, monarchism and salazarism.
Thirdly, as an obligation to its peoples in particular and to humanity in general, Nigeria owes it an obligation to promote the peace, progress and prosperity of the world and its entire multitudes and variety of races. The fundamental principle to be strictly and constantly kept in mind in this connection is that all the good or bad things of this world are indivisible; and even more so now that the world is much smaller than it used to be and all countries are now, as it were, each other’s neighbours. But the world we live in is so insane, and things are so chaotic, that the temptation is great for any underdeveloped country, such as Nigeria, to throw in the towel and let the forces of unreason and madness run their course. For the reason we have just mentioned, namely the indivisibility of all the good or bad things of this world, this temptation must be resisted at all costs.
The question that then arises is: what modus operandi should Nigeria adopt to effectively fulfill its three obligations which, as we have seen, are failing! always harmonize, because of the contradictory and divergent self-interests of all the countries that make up the world?
First of all, Nigeria needs to recognize the difference between foreign policy and foreign affairs. It must then take the utmost care to formulate and declare for itself a lasting foreign policy that will remain unalterable through all the shocks and vicissitudes of international conflict and clashes.
There is, in our considered opinion, a big difference between the statement of foreign policy and the conduct of external affairs. One is strategy and the other is tactics. When a ship goes out to sea and is destined for a particular port, it can be said that the policy is to sail to that port, no matter what. Whether it pursues one of a number of alternative routes leading to the specified port; and what maneuvers, detours and detours it makes in the course of its journey; all of these depend on the day-to-day conditions of the trip, including the weather and sea conditions. But since the choice of port must be necessary to satisfy customers, shipowners are not free to arbitrarily choose and vary the destination of the ship, as dictated by their own pleasures and fantasies.
As with the shipowners in our analogy, so with a state; and thus Nigeria. Nigerian leaders cannot and should not be allowed to set and change the policies of the country – external or domestic – without strict regard for the well-being and happiness of the Nigerian peoples.
In the last four chapters, we have discussed in detail the political, economic and social policies that Nigeria must follow if it is to promote the well-being of its peoples and allow them to live full and happy lives.
Assuming it is blessed with the right type of leadership to adopt this policy, then its external :”’licy .nudcd b~ the lat.cr In, ,.:! ,_i’CUIn-,ldnl’:’; igeria must adhere to the CUUI abroad”:-.. \ j1i ,>, !l’Sl’C,> at horne \ uhout llecc~~:iri!) trying to impose it:; IC\S on other points: I have div cr~t:ll’ domestic policy. For example, it can not afford.’ tu I , .. n”i;li~t ,l’at home and crpirahxt abroad; it can’t afford r. v and individual freedom at home and under .’ ,1<>11 and tyranny abroad; indeed it cannot afford to enforce unity at home, fuel disintegration or undermine unity abroad. And so on. It should be borne in mind that practicing one at home and advocating or doing the opposite abroad is evidence of a lack of direction and continued confidence in a fundamental policy.
A man cannot simultaneously hold contradictory views or pursue contradictory actions unless he is an outright scum or a naked-faced hypocrite or both.
Nigeria’s foreign policy can therefore be expressed in more concrete and detailed terms as follows:
(I) The active promotion of international understanding and of the universal brotherhood of man.
(2) The constructive and peaceful encouragement of the spread of socialism to all parts of the world, as the only economic and social concept that can eliminate greed and self-interest and promote mutual love and altruism among all humanity.
(3) Active and enlightened cooperation with the other countries of the world, insofar as they sincerely believe in and respect the ideals for which Nigeria stands.
(4) Respect for the independence, sovereignty and integrity of all States and non-interference in their internal affairs.
(5) Settlement of international disputes through peaceful negotiations or through direct mediation of one or more invited countries; it):,l
(6) Non-involvement (i) in military pacts or acts of aggression; or (ii) in a treaty made against the interest of another country.
(7) The promotion of free and mutually beneficial economic intercourse and cultural and scientific exchange among all nations of the world.
‘(8) The solemn observance of the principles and objectives enshrined in the Charter of the UN.O. and from the OAU;
(9) The eradication of apartheid and the cessation of the subjugation and inhumane treatment of black peoples in Africa and elsewhere, and the mobilization for these purposes of the material, intellectual and spiritual resources of all states of Africa and their friends.
– The tactics that will; applied from time to time to achieve these objectives will depend on the prevailing conditions at any given time. However, the policy should never be abandoned and nothing should obscure Nigeria’s clear vision of the country.
In pursuing and pursuing the country’s stated policies, as set out in more detail above, compromises can be made and accepted. But the compromises must be such that they in no way amount to the slightest deviation from, or even the appearance of, the country’s stated policies. To modify a journalistic maxim, external policies should be considered as:
sacred, while the pursuit of foreign affairs is free within the limits delineated by the recognized and declared policy of the country.
It is fashionable today for all underdeveloped countries, including Nigeria, to describe their foreign policy as ‘non-alignment’, and to be proud of belonging to a third world bloc. In our view, this is a sign of an inferiority complex, or of confused thinking, or both. The external policies we have outlined above certainly cannot bear the label of ‘non-alignment’. If it is
need it to be baptized, then it would be WORLD SOCIALISM.
It is also fashionable today for many underdeveloped countries to make the most of two opposing worlds by exploiting the deep-seated prejudices and unfeeling rivalry between the two power blocs: they profess insincere and cunning friendship with one bloc every other or both. to provide financial and/or technical assistance.. In our considered opinion, this is a most dishonorable way of conducting a country’s foreign affairs, and Nigeria should avoid it without reservation.
In this regard, we fully realize that persuasion and for truth has been a very rare virtue throughout the ages. Anyway,
STAYS NEXT WEEK
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